Early intervention to help parents manage behavioural and emotional problems in early adolescents: What parents want
School of Psychology, University of Queensland, Brisbane QLD
John Winston Toumbourou
Centre for Adolescent Health, University of Melbourne, VIC
School of Psychology, James Cook University, QLD
School of Psychology, James Cook University, QLD
Consultant Adolescent Psychologist, Albert Road Centre for Health, VIC
Matthew R Sanders
Parenting and Family Support Centre, University of Queensland, Brisbane QLD
PP: 156 - 168
Parents of 468 children aged between 12 and 14 years in ten high schools in a city in regional north Queensland and metropolitan Melbourne participated in a survey of early adolescent behaviour. The major undesirable behaviours experienced by parents were fighting with siblings, talking back to adults, moodiness, and school difficulties. Frequently listed desirable behaviours that were experienced were related to housework and communication.
Parents indicated a desire for education to help them assist their teenage children develop more appropriate behaviour, and in particular in regard to better managing their emotions. The findings are discussed in the context of the challenge of designing and delivering effective early intervention programs to large numbers of parents of early adolescents.
early intervention, adolescents, parents, behavioural problems, emotional problems
Family support and associated parenting practices are significant predictors of positive adjustment in childhood and adolescence, and indirect evidence suggests that family support is also a protective factor for adolescent substance abuse and conduct problems (Cauce, Reid, Landesman, & Gonzales 1990; Cohen & Wills 1985; Wills, Vaccaro & McNamara 1992). In contrast, dysfunctional parenting practices place children at risk for developing conduct problems (Hawkins, Catalano & Miller, 1992), and are among the strongest predictors of later delinquent behaviour (Loeber & Stouthamer-Loeber 1986). Family conflict and dysfunctional parenting practices are also related to a wide variety of adverse developmental and behavioural outcomes in adolescence including drug abuse, poor school achievement, and truancy (Sanders 1995).
As a child matures, poor regard for family norms of appropriate behaviour typically extends to disregard toward school and wider community expectations. The violation of these expectations and codified standards often results in criminal behaviour and legal sanctions by late childhood and adolescence. There are also adverse effects on a young person's employment opportunities and their capacity to maintain appropriate social and personal relationships. Without consistent and fair consequences for violations of family rules, a child will increasingly engage in defiant and antisocial behaviour that sets them further on this socially dysfunctional path.
Patterson and his colleagues (Patterson 1982; Patterson, Capaldi, & Banks 1991) identified two developmental pathways that explain the emergence of anti-social/conduct behaviour problems in childhood. The 'early-starter' model becomes entrenched in the pre-school years, and family-based intervention that addresses the risk factors associated with parenting practices has demonstrated the potential to provide parents with effective strategies for child management which preserve parental authority in a consistent and nurturing manner.
One such intervention is the Triple P - Positive Parenting Program (Sanders & Markie-Dadds 1992), which was designed as an early intervention program for this group of children and proven remarkably effective (Sanders, Markie-Dadds, Tully, & Bor 2000). However, a significant number of children do not exhibit problem behaviour in early childhood, but become part of a late starter group, with problems emerging in early adolescence (McMahon & Estes 1997). Interventions aimed at reducing adolescent antisocial behaviour and delinquency have typically been based on a treatment model, although there is currently only limited evidence of its effectiveness once adolescents have developed severe and pervasive antisocial behaviour patterns. There has been some limited success with family interventions with severely conducted-disordered youth (Chamberlain 1990; Henggler et al, 1998). However, these programs have had little impact on the prevalence of juvenile crime at a population level and the Pathways to Prevention Report (National Crime Prevention, 1999) defined the need for a developmental approach to crime prevention which is now beginning to influence developments in the field.
One family factor that is hypothesised to contribute to children entering this late starter trajectory is where adolescents experience problems in the normative task of individuating from their family of origin. Adolescents may face particular problems where parents become over involved in making decisions and completing tasks that should increasingly become the adolescent's responsibility. Attending to and promoting increasing adolescent involvement in this context appears to be an important dimension of parenting. Related concepts include Baldwin's distinction between 'emotional involvement' versus 'detachment', Parker and colleagues' identification of 'overprotection', and Ainsworth's notion of 'responsiveness', where parent and child behaviour become linked or enmeshed (Maccoby & Martin 1983: 37-38). Efforts to study parents' efforts to individuate from the adolescent have been hampered by a lack of appropriate research instruments. Clinical evidence suggests that adolescents face particular difficulties where attempts to individuate from the family of origin are resisted by parents (eg, Stanton, Todd & Associates 1982).
One major challenge facing those planning early interventions with parents of pre-adolescent children who may be on the late-starter developmental pathway is to actively engage the parents before problems become severe. The transition from primary to secondary school around the age of 12 or 13 years is often a time of apprehension and anxiety for parents who may then be more receptive to receiving advice on adolescent and parenting problems at this time. Making parenting programs universally accessible through schools will normalise the parent preparation process, as schools provide a convenient and appropriate community-based contact point where parenting issues can be legitimately discussed. One of the identified barriers to participation in parenting programs is a lack of perceived personal relevance by parents concerning program content (Prinz & Miller 1996). To maximise parental engagement, it is therefore critical to have information about the issues parents perceive to create most difficulties for them so as to provide face validity for program content.
The current study reports the views of a sample of parents with a child enrolled in the first years of high school, aged between 12 and 14 years. One focus of the study was to determine the issues causing difficulty for parents of young adolescent children making the transition from primary to secondary school, and to ascertain whether these issues are similar for parents in a large metropolitan urban setting compared to parents from a smaller more regional city. This information was deemed critical for the design of early intervention programs that might be expected to assist most parents mediate the behavioural trajectories of children at risk for developing severe antisocial behaviour in later adolescence and early adulthood.
... continues ...
Cauce A, Reid M, Kandesmann S and Gonzales N (1990) Social support in young children: Measurement, structure, and behavioral impact. In BR Sarason, IR Sarason, et al (Eds) Social Support: An Interactional View. Wiley Series on Personality Processes, pp.64-94. New York NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Chamberlain P (1990) Comparative evaluation of Specialised Foster Care for seriously delinquent youths: A first step. Community Alternatives: International Journal of Family Care 2, 21-36.
Cohen S and Wills TA (1985) Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin 98, 310-357.
Hawkins JD, Catalano RF and Miller JY (1992) Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: implications for substance abuse prevention. Psychological Bulletin 112(1), 64-105.
Henggler SW, Schoenwald SK, Borduin CM, Rowland MD and Cunningham PB (1998) Multisystemic Treatment of Antisocial Behavior in Children and Adolescents. New York: Guilford.
Loeber R and Stouthamer-Loeber M (1986) Family factors as correlates and predictors of juvenile conduct problems and delinquency. In M Tonry and N Morris (Eds) Crime and justice: An annual review of research. Vol. 7. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Maccoby EE and Martin JA (1983) Socialisation in the context of the family: Parent-child interaction. In PH Mussen (Ed) Handbook of Child Psychology. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
McMahon RJ and Estes AM (1997) Conduct problems. In EJ Mash and RA Barkley (Eds) Assessment of Childhood Disorders 3rd Edn. New York: Guilford.
National Crime Prevention (1999) Pathways to prevention: Developmental and early intervention approaches to crime in Australia (1990) Canberra: National Crime Prevention, Attorney General's Department.
Patterson GR (1982) Coercive Family Process. Eugene OR: Castalia.
Patterson GR, Capaldi D and Bank L (1991) An early starter model for predicting delinquency. In DJ Pepler and KH Rubin (Eds) The Development and Treatment of Childhood Aggression, pp.139-168. Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Prinz RJ and Miller GE (1996) Parental engagement in interventions for children at risk for Conduct Disorder. In R DeV Peters and RJ McMahon (Eds) Preventing Childhood Conduct Disorders, Substance Abuse and Delinquency, pp.161-183. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Ralph A and Sanders MR (2003) Preliminary evaluation of the Group Teen Triple P program for parents of teenagers making the transition to high school. Australian e-Journal for the Advancement of Mental Health 2(3) www.auseinet.com/journal/vol2iss3/ralphsanders.pdf.
Sanders MR (1995) Healthy Families, Healthy Nation: Strategies for Promoting Family Mental Health in Australia. Brisbane: Australian Academic Press
Sanders MR and Duncan SB (1995) Empowering families: Policy, training, and research issues in promoting family mental health in Australia. Behaviour Change 12, 109-121.
Sanders MR (1996) New directions in behavioral family intervention with children. In T Ollendick and R Prinz (Eds) Advances in Clinical Child Psychology 18, 283-330. New York: Plenum Press.
Sanders MR and Markie-Dadds C (1992) Toward a technology of prevention of disruptive behaviour disorders: The role of behavioural family intervention. Behaviour Change 9, 186-200.
Sanders MR, Markie-Dadds C, Tully L and Bor B (2000) The Triple P - Positive Parenting Program: A comparison of enhanced, standard, and self-directed behavioural family intervention for parents of children with early onset conduct disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 68, 624-640.
Stanton MD, Todd TC and Associates (Eds) (1982) The Family Therapy of Drug Abuse and Addiction. New York: Guilford.
Ware JE, Kosinski M, Keller SD (1994) SF-36 Physical and Mental Health Summary Scales: A User's Manual. The Health Institute, New England Medical Centre. Boston, Massachusetts.
Wills TA, Vaccaro D and McNamara (1992) The role of life events, family support, and competence in adolescent substance use: A test of vulnerability and protective factors. American Journal of Community Psychology 20, 349-374.